DOG HEALTH CHART

Addison’s Disease

Symptoms

    • Lethargy
    • Lack of appetite 
    • Vomiting
    • Weight loss
    • Diarrhea
    • Shaking
    • Increased frequency of urination 
    • Increased thirst

Treatment

    • Injections
    • Oral Medication

Prevention

    • Not Preventable 
    • Dogs with this disease should not be bred

Alopecia (Hair Loss) caused by Follicular Dysplasia

Symptoms

    • Episodes of hair loss particularly on the torso

Treatment

    • Oral medications to stimulate hair growth
    • Topical solutions and shampoos

Prevention

    • Check the puppy’s parents for hair loss
    • Though not necessarily preventable, environmental stressors such as illness or surgery may trigger it.

Allergies

Symptoms

    • Itchy red, moist, or scabbed skin
    • Increased scratching
    • Itchy, runny eyes
    • Scratching at the back or base of tail (Often from fleas)
    • Chewing excessively on feet (often a food allergy)
    • Swollen Pads
    • Sneezing
    • Excessive licking

Treatment

    • Anti-Allergy Medications
    • Benadryl (ask your vet before administering and do not use as a long-term or permanent solution as it can irritate the stomach lining)
    • If your dog responds severely to an allergy (swollen tongue, difficulty breathing, falling asleep while standing)
    • Bring them to the vet. The vet will give them a cortisone shot.

Prevention

    • Allergy panels can be performed to try to uncover the cause of a dog’s allergies.
    • Try switching your dog to a high-quality food. We recommend Canidae.
    • Wipe your dog’s paws and belly after playing outside.
    • Bathe your dog with anti-itch dog shampoo.
    • Keep chemicals, smoke, and other irritable inhalants at a minimum.

Atlanto Axial Subluxation

Symptoms

    • Stiff neck
    • Reluctance to turn head
    • Neck pain
    • Abnormal head positions
    • Weakness in legs
    • Difficulty walking
    • Uncoordinated walk
    • Inability to stand
    • Sudden collapses
    • Paralysis below neck
    • Difficulty breathing

Treatment

    • A splint, cast or brace to immobilize the neck and manage symptoms
    • Surgery

Prevention

    • This is a genetic condition. Be sure to select your puppy from a reputable breeder that has no record of Atlanto Axial Subluxation in their lines, or in any of the dogs they have bred.

Atopic Dermatitis

Symptoms

    • Itching
    • Rubbing on the carpet
    • Hair loss
    • Greasy or flaky skin with a foul odor
    • Excessive chewing on paws, under the arms, or around the groin
    • Commonly affected areas: Ears, muzzle, around the eyes, wrists/ankles, armpit, groin, in-between the toes

Treatment

    • Steroids
    • Anti-itch shampoo
    • Antihistamines
    • Fatty acid therapy
    • Nutritional Changes

Prevention

    • Dogs are usually genetically predisposed to this disease, however there is currently no known way to avoid it.
    • Limit your pet’s exposure to smoke, chemicals, and other common allergens.
    • Pets with symptoms should have underlying allergies identified if possible.

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

Symptoms

    • Lethargy
    • Excessively pale gums
    • Disorientation
    • Rapid Heart Beat
    • Bruises on the skin
    • Black, tarry stools
    • Blood in the dog’s vomit

Treatment

    • Medications, Chemotherapy
    • Surgery to address underlying issues.
    • In severe cases, blood transfusions may be given.

Prevention

    • Keep your pet on flea and tick preventatives
    • Always be cautious of using medications long-term. Ask your vet about whether they may cause anemia.
    • Feed your dog high quality dog food (we recommend Canidae)
    • Keep your dog fit and active.
    • Keep your dog away from toxins and chemicals, such as rat poison.

Basenji Enteropathy (Basenji)

Symptoms

    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Chronic Diarrhea
    • Increased or decreased appetite
    • Gas
    • Depression

Treatment

    • Nutritional management

    • Antibiotics

    • Prednisone

Prevention

    • The causes are unknown. Take your dog to the vet for any digestive problems that last two weeks to prevent an issue from escalating.

Benign Juvenile Epilepsy

Symptoms

    • Seizures between five to nine weeks of age

Treatment

    • Not established

Prevention

    • Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy DNA Test

Bladder Stones

Symptoms

    • Urinary accidents

    • Frequent attempts to urinate without producing much urine

    • Straining to urinate

    • Discolored urine

    • Licking around the urinary opening

Treatment

    • Antibiotics to treat underlying causes

    • Therapeutic dog food administered by a vet

    • Surgery

Prevention

    • Be sure your dog has access to, and drinks plenty of water.

    • Once bladder stones have formed in a dog, you can give them special pet food to reduce the chance of recurrence.

Bloat: More common in older dogs

Symptoms

    • Enlarged abdomen, excessive drooling, vomiting, a weak pulse, and paleness in the nose and mouth.

Treatment

    • Gastric Decompression

      Note : If your dog is burping or passing gas, they will likely be able to ‘wait it out’. However, inform your vet immediately and be prepared to bring your dog in if their condition changes.

Prevention

    • Causes are unknown, but it is suspected that allowing your dog to eat too much, too fast, drink too much water with their food, and exercise excessively after eating may cause bloat.

Bronchoesophageal Fistula

Symptoms

    • Coughing after eating or drinking.

    • Regurgitation Anorexia

    • Fever

    • Lethargy

Treatment

    • Surgery

Prevention

    • In Cairn Terriers it is a congenital disease, meaning it is present at birth, so select a puppy that appears to be healthy and of a good weight

Cancer

Symptoms

    • Abnormal swellings/lumps that grow

    • Sores that do not heal

    • Weight loss

    • Loss of appetite

    • Scratching at swellings/lumps

    • Abnormal discharge from orifices

Treatment

    • Surgery

    • Medication

    • Chemotherapy

Prevention

    • Cancers are often genetic, so be sure to research your dog’s genetic predisposition to different cancers, and choose your dog from a reputable breeder.

    • Give your dog a fit and active lifestyle; obese dogs are more at risk for cancer.

Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD)

Symptoms

    • Decreased activity

    • Decreased range of motion

    • Lameness in the hind end

    • Looseness in the joint

    • Narrow stance

Treatment

    • Weight Loss

    • Lifestyle Modification

    • Joint Injections

    • Specialized Physical Therapy

Prevention

    • Exercise

    • Maintaining a proper weight

    • Purchase your puppy from a reputable breeder who has had the parent dogs tested for hip problems

Cataracts

Symptoms

    • A bluish, gray, or white layer in the eye.

    • A sudden reluctance to climb stairs or jump on furniture.

    • Clumsiness.

    • Eye irritation/redness, discharge or blinking.

    • Rubbing or scratching of the eyes.

Treatment

    • Surgery (often not necessary)

Prevention

    • Diabetes is the main cause of cataracts in dogs, so maintain a healthy weight and well-exercised lifestyle for your dog

Chondrodysplasia (Canine Dwarfism)

Symptoms

    • Larger than normal head

    • Underbite

    • Short nose

    • Crooked teeth

    • Abnormal bone shape

    • Stunted growth

    • Enlarged joints

    • Low to the ground

    • Bowed legs

Treatment

    • None

Prevention

    • Genetic Disorder: Caused by breeding a dog that carries the gene. 

    • Select your puppy from a reputable breeder with health records for their dogs.

Congenital Deafness

Symptoms

    • Aggressiveness when playing with other puppies

    • Ignoring noisy toys

    • No response to loud noises

    • Abnormal amount of sleeping

    • Jumping or snapping when woken or touched when not looking

    • Lack of activity

    • Ignoring commands

    • Unusual vocalizing

    • Confusion and disorientation

      *Symptoms may not always be easy to recognize

Treatment

    • None: Affected dogs can be trained with a vibrating collar or hand signals if deafness is severe

Prevention

    • Genetic Disorder: Select your puppy from a reputable breeder with health records for their dogs. BAER testing is a definitive way to determine if a dog has (and may pass on) congenital deafness. Additionally, medications, toxins, or other environmental factors exposed to the mother during pregnancy can lead to deafness.

Copper Storage Disease

Symptoms

    • Nausea

    • Fatigue

    • Weakness

    • Weight Loss

    • Excessive Thirst

Treatment

    • Oral Medications

Prevention

    • OFA copper storage hepatopathy evaluation for parents

Copper Toxicosis (Westie)

Symptoms

    • Lethargy

    • Anorexia

    • Depression

    • Vomiting

    • Yellowish skin

    • Pale gum

    • Dark urine

    • Blood in urine

      In chronic cases, there also may be :

    • Diarrhea 

    • Excessive thirst and urination

    • A distended stomach

    • Spontaneous bleeding

Treatment

    • Medication

    • Fluids and electrolytes may be administered to help flush out toxins.

    • In some cases, your dog may need a blood transfusion.

    • Dietary changes

Prevention

    • The causes are genetic. Select a reputable breeder when purchasing your puppy, and do not purchase your puppy from a store.

    • In the case of West Highland White Terriers, certain genetic lines are contaminated. Your breeder should prove that their dogs do not have a history of this disease.

Corneal Dystrophy

Symptoms

    • There are three different types : epithelial (affects dogs ages 6 months to 6 years), stromal (affects young dogs), and endothelial corneal dystrophy (affects middle aged dogs and older).

    • Samoyeds are at risk for the stromal type.

      Stromal:

    • Oval or circular opacities: white, gray or silver

    • Doughnut-shaped opacity

Treatment

    • Usually, treatment is not necessary.

    • Dietary Changes

    • Topical Acid Treatment

    • Surgery

Prevention

    • Select your dog from a breeder whose dogs have no history of corneal dystrophy.

Corneal Ulcers

Symptoms

    • Painful eyes

    • Watery eyes

    • Discharge

    • Scratching and pawing at eyes

    • Redness of eyes

Treatment

    • Antibiotics

Prevention

    • Take dogs who are scratching at their eyes to the vet. 

    • Monitor the health of your dog’s eyes and have their eyes checked once yearly for other eye conditions.

Craniomandibular Osteopathy (Lion Jaw)

Symptoms

    • Usually occurs between the ages of 3 and 8 months

    • Pain with chewing

    • Loss or lack of appetite

    • Fever

    • Difficulty picking up food

    • Excessive drooling

    • Jaw swelling

    • Symptoms worsen over time

Treatment

    • It will usually stop progressing around the age of one year, and possibly regress.

    • There is no treatment, but medication can alleviate symptoms.

Prevention

    • There are no known methods of prevention, the causes are genetic.

Cushing’s Disease: More common in older dogs

Symptoms

    • Increased thirst, urination, or appetite.
    • Reduced activity, excessive panting, hair loss, recurrent skin infections, potbelly.

Treatment

    • Surgery

    • Medication

Prevention

    • Maintain a healthy weight and lifestyle for your dog.

    • Avoid using cortisol-boosting medications unless necessary (ie: prednisone, dexamethasone, prednisolone)

    • Select your dog from a breeder whose dogs have no recent history of Cushing’s Disease.

Diabetes

Symptoms

    • Excessive Thirst
    • Increased urination
    • Larger volume of urination
    • Dehydration
    • Lethargy
    • Weight Loss
    • Chronic Skin Conditions
    • Breath may smell strangely sweet

Treatment

    • Special diet to help maintain insulin levels. 
    • Oral medication
    • Insulin injection administered daily by the owner.

Prevention

    • Maintain a healthy weight for your dog. 
    • Do not overfeed them or allow them to become obese.

Distichiasis

Symptoms

    • Stiff cilia (eyelash)

    • Pawing at eye.

    • Abnormal tick or twitch of eyelid

    • Overflow of tears

    • Increased blood vessels in the cornea.

    • Change in iris pigmentation.

    • Corneal ulcers.

Treatment

    • Ocular lubricants

    • Plucking extra eyelashes

    • Electrolysis (Electroepilation)

    • Cryotherapy (Cryosurgery)

    • Hotz-Celsus procedure

Prevention

    • Unknown

Ectopia Cilia

Symptoms

    • Eye pain

    • Severe abnormal ticking or twitching of the eyelid (blepharospasm)

    • Overflow of tears (epiphora)

Treatment

    • Surgery

Prevention

    • Facial shape and genetics cause this condition.

    • Choose your puppy from a reputable breeder whose dogs have no history of this condition.

Elbow Dysplasia

Symptoms

    • Lameness or limping on one or both front legs

    • Front limb lameness that worsens with activity or exercise

    • Stiffness when rising from rest

    • Reluctance to play

Treatment

    • Weight Loss

    • Lifestyle Modification

    • Joint Injections

    • Specialized Physical Therapy

Prevention

    • Exercise

    • Maintaining a proper weight

    • Genetic Testing

Entropion

Symptoms

    • Excess Tears

    • Inner Eye Inflammation

    • Eye Tics

    • Discharge of pus from the eye

    • Eye inflammation

    • Ruptured Cornea

Treatment

    • Surgery

    • Treatment of underlying ailments

Prevention

    • Select the dog from a reputable breeder

    • Always bring your dog to the vet to treat eye infections

Epilepsy

Symptoms

    • Frequent Seizures

    • Unusual head shaking

    • Collapse

    • Muscle twitching and spasms

    • Loss of consciousness

    • Panic or confusion

    • Stiff legs

    • Temporary loss of vision

    • Vomiting

    • Weakness

    • Recurrences of the symptoms listed above

Treatment

    • This condition is lifelong, but medication can help

Prevention

    • Keep your dog away from environmental toxins and chemicals.

    • Have your dog examined by a vet yearly, and treat any health issues immediately.

    • Choose a dog from a reputable breeder

Fanconi Syndrome
(Basenji)

Symptoms

    • (Develops in adulthood)

    • excessive drinking excessive urination glucose in the urine

    • muscle mass depletion

    • acidosis

    • diarrhea

    • vomiting

    • lethargy

    • weakness

    • seizures

    • eventual death

Treatment

    • Nutritional management and supplementation

    • When detected in early stages, the prognosis is usually positive.

Prevention

    • Buy your dog from a reputable breeder who has had the parent dogs DNA tested for Fanconi syndrome.

    • Get a DNA test done on your dog (if under 10 years of age) to test for Fanconi syndrome, or use Diastix urinalysis test strips to catch the syndrome early.

Gingivitis (advanced stage leads to periodontitis)

Symptoms

    • Bright red gums

    • Inflammation of gums

    • Inflammation of tooth

    • In later stages the gum will recede from the tooth.

Treatment

    • Early stages : controlling plaque (teeth brushing, dog treats).

    • Severe cases : Bone replacement procedures, Periodontal splinting, Guided tissue regeneration

Prevention

    • Maintain good oral hygiene with frequently brushing the teeth, providing your dog with bones to chew on (always monitor chewing)

    • Provide teeth-health treats.

GM1 Storage Disease

Symptoms

    • Affects Puppies

    • Stunted Growth

    • Neurological symptoms: impaired vision and coordination

    • Progressive Lethargy

Treatment

    • None

Prevention

    • Selective breeding.

    • Be sure that this puppy’s parents have been tested.

Glaucoma

Symptoms

    • Blinking of the eye

    • The eyeball may recede back into the head

    • Redness in the whites of eyes

    • Cloudy appearance at front of the eye

    • Dilated pupil – or pupil does not respond to light

    • Vision loss

Treatment

    • Medication

Prevention

    • Avoid the use of tight collars

    • Provide good quality food, supplemental antioxidants (Vitamins E, C, beta-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, and rutin) may help prevent glaucoma.

    • Take your dog for regular eye exams

Heart Murmur

Symptoms

    • *Dogs may show no outward symptoms. Affected dogs may display:

    • Coughing

    • Difficult or rapid breathing

    • Congestion or “noisy” breathing

    • Exercise intolerance (reluctance to exercise)

    • Weakness or lethargy (tiredness)

    • Fainting episodes

    • Gray or blue gums

    • Abdominal distention (a pot-bellied appearance)

    • Collapse

Treatment

    • Often caused by other conditions which are treatable by a veterinarian. ie: Heartworm

    • Surgery may be recommended for congenital heart murmurs.

Prevention

    • Purchase your puppy from a reputable breeder.

    • Always keep your pet on heartworm medication, especially during the summer or in regions where heartworm is common (sometimes year round)

    • Have your dog’s health checked at least once a year and treat any conditions immediately.

Hemangiosacroma

Symptoms

    • No discernable symptoms until tumor bursts. Owners may note excessive bleeding.

Treatment

    • Chemotherapy.

    • Splenectomy

Prevention

    • None

Hypoglycemia

Symptoms

    • Loss of appetite

    • Increased hunger

    • Visual abnormalities

    • Disorientation

    • Confusion

    • Weakness

    • Low Energy

    • Loss of consciousness

    • Seizures (rare)

    • Anxiety

    • Restlessness

    • Tremor/shivering

Treatment

    • Oral Medication

Prevention

    • Feed your dog at least twice a day

    • Dogs that exercise strenuously may need more food

Hypothyroidism

Symptoms

    • Lethargy

    • Generalized weakness

    • Inactivity

    • Mental dullness

    • Unexplained weight ga

    • Hair loss (alopecia)

    • Excessive hair shedding

Treatment

    • Lifelong oral replacement hormone administered at home by owner

Prevention

    • Maintain overall health of the dog with frequent vet visits

Hyperplastic dermatosis

Symptoms

    • Flaky skin

    • Greasy Coat

    • Skin Lesions

    • Lumps on skin

    • Darkening of the skin

    • Red, itchy patches of skin

    • Red, itchy ears

Treatment

    • Dietary Changes

    • Medicated Shampoo

    • Topical Anti-fungal

    • Topical cleansing agents

Prevention

    • Uncommon

    • Likely genetic

    • Yeast infections and allergies probably aggravate the disease and cause symptoms to manifest, so have allergic symptoms seen by a vet so they can be controlled at an early stage.

Intervertebral Disc Disease

Symptoms

    • Neck pain

    • Back pain

    • Abdominal tenderness

    • Arched

    • Sensitivity to touch (possible aggression)

    • Sensitivity to movement

    • Impaired, incomplete or inappropriate urination

    • Lameness

    • Dragging Legs

    • Weakness

    • Stiffness

    • Lack of coordination

Treatment

    • Medical management of symptoms

    • Surgery

    • Confinement

    • Massage Therapy

Prevention

    • Genetic, be sure that your breeder does not have a history of Intervertebral Disc Disease in any of the dogs they have bred.

    • Prevent your dog from doing extreme jumps, such as jumping over tall objects or down from high places

Juvenile Cardiomyopathy

Symptoms

    • Weakness

    • Lethargy

    • Tachypnea (abnormal Rapid breathing)

    • Exercise intolerance

    • Cough

    • Anorexia

    • Ascites

Treatment

    • Medications to control heart function

Prevention

    • The cause is unknown.

    • Proper nutrition and responsible breeding are thought to reduce risk.

Juvenile Cataracts

Symptoms

    • A bluish, gray, or white layer in the eye.

    • A sudden reluctance to climb stairs or jump on furniture.

    • Clumsiness.

    • Eye irritation/redness, discharge or blinking.

    • Rubbing or scratching of the eyes.

Treatment

    • Surgery (often not necessary)

Prevention

    • The cause of cataracts in young dogs is usually hereditary, so be sure to get your puppy from a reputable breeder who has had the parent dogs assessed by an Ophthalmologist

Juvenile renal dysplasia (JRD)

Symptoms

    • Excessive thirst

    • Excessive volume of urine

    • Weight Loss

    • Lethargy

    • Intermittent loss of appetite

    • In the final stage :

    • Vomiting

    • Weakness

    • Dehydration

    • Death from renal failure

Treatment

    • None

    • Low protein diets can sometimes help symptoms

Prevention

    • There is not much you can do to prevent this health issue, except to choose a dog from a breeder who has no reported cases of JRD in the dogs they have bred.

Keratitis sicca (keratoconjunctivitis Sicca) (Dry Eye) (KCS)

Symptoms

    • Itchy eyes

    • Dull, dry and opaque cornea

    • Eye redness

    • Swollen eyelids

    • Thick yellow-green ocular discharge

    • Sensitivity to light

    • Eyelid twitching

    • Excessive blinking

Treatment

    • Medications to stimulate tear production

Prevention

    • Maintain a healthy weight and active lifestyle

    • Vaccinate for distemper

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (Westie)

Symptoms

    • Excessive blinking

    • Prominent third eyelid (nictitating membrane)

    • Eye discharge

    • Severe cases :

    • Impaired vision

    • Loss of vision

Treatment

    • Medication

    • Home care by the owner to stimulate tear production

Prevention

    • There are a number of potential causes, and this issue is often a consequence of larger medical problems, although sometimes it may be genetic. If your dog is prone to this issue, you should read in depth about the various situations that may cause it.

Kidney Stones

Symptoms

    • Blood in urine

    • Vomiting

    • Recurrent urinary tract Infections

    • Painful, difficult urination

    • Frequent urination, but in small amounts

Treatment

    • Medication

Prevention

    • Be sure your dog has access to, and is drinking plenty of water.

    • Feed your dog good quality dog food. Ask your vet about giving your dog supplements.

Krabbe disease (globoid cell leukodystrophy) (GCL)

Symptoms

    • Symptoms emerge between 1 and 6 months

    • Tremors

    • Staggering

    • Weakness Incoordination

    • Loss of control of legs

    • Vision problems (sometimes)

    • Behavioral Changes

    • Dementia

    • Lack of appetite

    • Inability to eat

    • Incontinence

    • Death

Treatment

    • Euthanasia

Prevention

    • Reputable breeders work to identify parent dogs that are carriers, and will not breed them.

    • Both parent dogs must carry the recessive gene for Krabbe Disease (GCL).

    • Ask your breeder how they work to prevent GCL from occurring in their litters.

Lagotto Storage Disease

Symptoms

    • Staggering

    • Uncoordinated Gait

    • Involuntary Eye Movements

    • Behavioral Changes such as aggression.

Treatment

    • None

Prevention

    • Lagotto Storage Disease DNA Test

Legg-Perthes Disease

Symptoms

    • In the hind leg dogs may experience: inflammation stiffness

    • pain

    • inability to move or walk

    • Muscle atrophy

Treatment

    • Medication

    • Surgery

    • Physical Therapy

Prevention

    • Affected dogs should not be bred.

    • Choose your dog from a reputable breeder.

Lens Luxation (Tibetan Terrier)

Symptoms

    • Painful, reddened eye with diffuse corneal swelling

    • Trembling Iris

    • Trembling Lens

    • The clear part of the lens is positioned abnormally

    • Aphakic crescent – an area of the pupil is devoid of the lens

Treatment

    • When breeds are prone to lens luxation the cause is usually genetic

Prevention

    • Purchase your puppy from a reputable breeder who has given the parent dogs a PLL genetic test, which tests for Primary Lens Luxation. Dogs that test positive should not be bred.

Lymphangiectasia

Symptoms

    • Vomiting

    • Chronic diarrhea

    • Loss of appetite

    • Weight loss

    • Lethargy

    • Fluid accumulation in the abdomen and sometimes under the skin

    • Excessive gas

    • Difficulty breathing

Treatment

    • Anti-inflammatory drugs

    • Diuretics

    • Dietary adjustments

    • Mild exercise

    • Therapeutic massage veterinary laser therapy

Prevention

    • Unknown

Lymphoma (A type of cancer)

Symptoms

    • Anorexia

    • Weakness

    • Lethargy

    • Weight loss

    • Sudden behavioral changes

    • Enlarged area around the throat

Treatment

    • Medication

    • Chemotherapy

    • Canine Lymphoma is NOT curable, however, of all canine cancers, Lymphoma is one of the most treatable and usually higher life expectancy rates for the dog.

Prevention

    • No known methods of prevention. Good breeding may help avoid Lymphoma.

    • Proper nutrition and keeping your pet away from chemicals, smoke, or other carcinogens may help.

Mitral Valve Insufficiency (a form of heart disease)

Symptoms

    • Earliest sign is a heart murmur.

    • Symptoms are not obvious, dogs may appear to be “slowing down” from age. Therefore all heart murmurs should be treated with caution and testing.

    • Symptoms include: exercise intolerance, coughing, trouble breathing, increased breathing rate, collapse, or weakness

Treatment

    • Medication

Prevention

    • Regular exercise

    • Healthy Diet

    • Oral Hygiene: Small dogs often suffer dental diseases that can cause bacteria to enter the bloodstream and infect the heart.

Myotonia Congenita

Symptoms

    • Voice change
    • Muscle stiffness
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Difficulty rising or moving
    • Difficulty swallowing
    • Regurgitation, especially after eating
    • Tongue may protrude from mouth

Treatment

    • There is no cure for this disease, however certain medications can make symptoms more manageable.

Prevention

    • Choose a dog from a reputable breeder whose dogs have no history of Myotonia Congenita.

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (NCL) (Tibetan Terrier)

Symptoms

    • Cognitive deterioration

    • Visual deterioration

    • Seizures

    • Motor function impairment

    • Jerky muscle contractions

    • Blindness

Treatment

    • Currently there is no treatment for this disease, but studies suggest that gene therapy may help to manage symptoms in the future.

Prevention

    • Purchase your puppy from a reputable breeder who has given the parent dogs an NCL genetic test. Dogs that test positive should not be bred.

Ocular melanosis

Symptoms

    • Eye inflammation

    • Pigment particles can be seen in the eye

Treatment

    • There is no cure for ocular melanosis

    • Medication

    • Laser Surgery

    • Implantation of a shunt (gonioimplantation)

    • Removal of the eye

       

Prevention

    • Dogs diagnosed with ocular melanosis should not be bred.

    • Select your puppy from a reputable breeder.

    • Ocular Melanosis is present at birth but clinical symptoms may not appear until later.

Pancreatitis

Symptoms

    • Loss of appetite

    • Vomiting

    • Tummy pain

    • A fever or low body temperature

    • Diarrhea

    • Lethargy

    • Difficulty breathing

    • Dehydration

    • Irregular heartbeat

Treatment

    • Prescription dog food

    • Treatment of underlying ailments

Prevention

    • Feed your dog good quality dog food.

    • Maintain a healthy weight. Especially do not let your dog become overweight.

Pancreatic Disease, Pancreatitis, or Acute Liver Condition

Symptoms

    • Vomiting

    • Diarrhea

    • Abdominal Pain

    • Depression

    • Dehydration

Treatment

    • Special diet to reduce fat consumption

Prevention

    • Maintain a healthy weight for your dog.

    • Do not feed excessively fatty foods, especially fatty foods that are very high in sugar like honey-glazed ham.

    • Certain drugs can cause liver toxicity. If you notice pancreatic disease symptoms, ask your vet if medications might have influenced them.

Persistent Pupillary Membranes (PPM)

Symptoms

    • Swelling around the eye area

    • Colored strands that cover the iris of the eye and may resemble broken glass, a cobweb, or a spider.

Treatment

    • Most of the time the condition is painless and doesn’t cause vision loss. However, vision loss can be caused if strands go all the way across the cornea (which is likely to happen with Basenjis)

    • In severe cases, a dog may need to undergo surgery.

Prevention

    • Dogs with this defect should not be bred. Purchase your puppy from a reputable breeder, and be sure to meet the parent dogs to confirm that they do not have Persistent Pupillary Membranes.

Portosystemic shunt (portosystemic liver shunt)

Symptoms

    • poor muscle development

    • stunted growth

    • disorientation

    • staring into space circling or head pressing seizures

Treatment

    • Surgery.

Prevention

    • Parent dogs should not possess this disorder

Protein Losing Enteropathy (PLE) (Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier)

Symptoms

    • Sometimes diarrhea and vomiting

    • Unexplained weight loss

    • Malnutrition

Treatment

    • Identifying and treating the underlying condition using : Endoscopy

    • Surgery

    • Ultrasound

    • Biopsy

    • Medical treatment

Prevention

    • Seek veterinary treatment if your dog appears to have any intestinal problems that last for two weeks.

Pulmonary fibrosis (Westie)

Symptoms

    • Wheezing

    • Coughing

    • Increased breathing

    • Exercise intolerance

    • Lethargy

    • Blue tongue

    • Dizziness

    • Fainting

Treatment

    • Not curable

    • Various medications can help to ease symptoms and improve the dog’s quality of life.

    • Also : Exercise reduction,

    • Dietary changes, and

    • Weight Loss can help.

Prevention

    • It is thought that some dogs are genetically predisposed.

    • Take your dog to the vet for medication if they have any respiratory problems.

    • Keep your dog in a clean environment free of smoke and chemicals.

Pulmonic Stenosis

Symptoms

    • Abdominal distention

    • Difficulty breathing

    • Inability to exercise normally

Treatment

    • Balloon catheter dilation

    • Surgery

    • Long-term treatment, including eliminating stress from the environment.

Prevention

    • This disease is present at birth. Before you purchase your puppy, be sure that they have had their health checked by a vet.

Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency (Red blood cell disorder)

Symptoms

    • Symptoms usually begin to show between 4 months to 1 year

    • Chronic Anemia (red blood cell deficiency)

    • Weakness

    • Lack of energy

    • Rapid heart rate

    • Heart murmurs

    • Pale gums

    • Stunted growth

Treatment

    • Cannot be treated.

    • Palliative care, care that improves the dog’s quality of life, is the only option.

    • Dogs usually die before 4 years of age

Prevention

    • Both parents of the dog must recessively carry the gene.

    • Breeders should give parent dogs a “PK Test” which genetically tests for Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency. Affected dogs should not be bred.

    • Select your puppy from a reputable breeder that can provide you with test results.

Retinal Dysplasia

Symptoms

    • Bumping into things

    • Reluctance to jump down

    • Reluctance to maneuver stairs

    • Difficulty recognizing people

    • Color changes in the eye

    • Behavioral changes

Treatment

    • None

Prevention

    • Affected dogs should not be bred.

    • Parent dogs should have an eye clearance from the Canine Eye Registry Foundation

Reverse sneezing

Symptoms

    • The dog will stand, extend their head and neck, pull back their lips, and inhale repeatedly and forcefully through their nose.

    • The usually make a distinct “snorking” sound.

    • Episodes can be as long as 10-15 seconds or so.

Treatment

    • Most cases do not need to be treated. For those that are severe, underlying ailments are usually treated.

    • To reduce the length of a sneezing episode : softly blow in your dog’s face, massage their throat, or hold their nostrils closed for a few seconds

Prevention

    • This condition is caused by facial shape & breed.

    • Keep the dog away from allergens.

    • Prevent dogs from eating too fast by feeding them in low-stress environments.

Sebaceous Adenitis

Symptoms

    • Hair Loss
    • Musty odor
    • Clumps of waxy matted hair
    • Intense itching
    • Silver-white scales on skin
    • Clusters of lesions on the head or body
    • Bacterial infection of the hair follicle
    • Scabs and sores

Treatment

    • Topical therapy
    • Oil baths
    • Oil sprays
    • Supplements

Prevention

    • This is a hereditary disease.
    • Select your puppy from a reputable breeder that can provide you with a health record to prove that the parent dogs do not suffer from this condition.

Sick Sinus Syndrome

Symptoms

    • Weakness

    • Fainting

    • Fatigue

    • Collapse

    • Seizure

    • Abnormally fast or slow heart rate

    • (Rare) sudden death

Treatment

    • Only dogs that show clinical symptoms need to be treated.

    • Surgical implantation of a pacemaker.

Prevention

    • Causes are unknown but the condition may be genetic.

    • Select your dog from a reputable breeder.

Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis

This disease is genetic, so be sure to get your dog from a reputable breeder!Symptoms

    • Weakness

    • breathing difficulty fainting

    • in extreme cases, sudden death

Treatment

    • Exercise restrictions

    • Medication

    • Balloon catheterization

    • Minimally invasive surgical procedures

Prevention

    • This disease is genetic, so be sure to get your dog from a reputable breeder!

Thrombopathia (blood disease) (thrombocytopenia)

Symptoms

    • Excessive bleeding

    • Frequent nose bleeds

    • Hematomas on the ears

    • Skin is easily bruised

Treatment

    • None

Prevention

    • Choose a puppy from genetically healthy parents

Umbilical Hernia

Symptoms

    • A protruding bump just below a puppy’s ribcage that is particularly noticeable when the puppy is standing, barking, crying, or straining.

Treatment

    • Some can be pushed back into the body, those that don’t close by themselves require surgery.

    • These hernias are usually painless, and not a threat to your dog.

Prevention

    • The causes of this birth defect are unknown, but it is not considered a serious condition.

Von Willebrand’s Disease

Symptoms

    • Nosebleeds

    • Blood in the feces

    • Bloody urine

    • Bleeding from the gums

    • Bleeding from the vagina (excessively)

    • Bruising of skin

    • Prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma

    • Blood loss, anemia if there is prolonged bleeding

Treatment

    • Blood transfusions

    • There is no cure

Prevention

    • Choose a puppy from genetically healthy parents

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada

Symptoms

    • Inflammation of the eyes

    • Bloodshot eyes

    • Excessive tearing

    • Squinting

    • Sensitivity to light

    • Whitening of the coat, skin, nose, lips, nails, and footpads

Treatment

    • Medication

    • Immunosuppression therapy

Prevention

    • Genetic

    • Some researchers believe that it may be caused by a viral infection.

    • Purchase your puppy from a reputable breeder

White Shaker Dog Syndrome (Westie)

Symptoms

    • Muscle tremors
    • Shivering
    • Uncoordinated movement
    • Uncontrolled rapid eye movements Head tilt
    • High-stepping gait
    • Difficulty walking
    • Paralysis
    • Seizures

Treatment

    • Medication – many dogs can recover after several months.
    • Some dogs will need to take low doses for the rest of their lives.

Prevention

    • Unknown

*FOR ANEMIA : 

On a human….If you press down on a dog’s skin see how long it takes for the pink color to return. If the pinkness comes back to their skin quickly, the dog has sufficient blood oxygen content. If it takes a long time to return, the dog may have anemia.